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Antiseksismewet

"Vraagtekens bij een antiseksismewet, analoog aan de antiracismewet, m.b.t. reclame."
Antwoord van Corine Van Hellemont op een vraag gesteld door Gynaika vzw op Zorra's discussieforum (februari-maart 2001).

Een beeld van een vrouw

"Beelden van vrouwen en vrouwelijkheid in de populaire cultuur".
Sonja Spee In: Seksualiteit, relaties, geboorteregeling. Jaarboek 99.

Vacature m/v

Vacature m/v wint eerste Zorra-prijs. Nov. 2000

Beeldenstorm

"Vrouwen in de beeldenstorm".
Een onderzoek naar vrouw en media

Ruby

"Eigenwaarde, lichaamstevredenheid en het schoonheidsideaal"
Een onderzoek in het kader van de Ruby-campagne, uitgevoerd door ZORRA en The BodyShop. Sonja Spee & Dimitri Mortelmans. Antwerpen 1997.

Mythe van de schoonheid

"In de ban van het lichaam of de mythe van de schoonheid."
Door Frieda Bogaerts. 2002.

Adecco

"Reclameperikelen".
 In: Koeckenbak, Dag Allemaal, 23/01/01. Paul Koeck.

Iglo  'hot & steamy'

Iglo-campagne humoristisch of vrouwonvriendelijk?
Door: Mark Vlaeminck.
 In: Het Nieuwsblad, 14/04/01

Maxim

"Konijnen".
 In: Maxim, maart 2001. Thierry Sarasyn.

Meisjes van 50

"Meisjes van 50".
 Interview met Christel Geerts (professor gerontologie, VUB) in tijdschrift "Doen", januari 2002.

Perrier (a)

"Perrier-reclame aanstootgevend of niet?" Belang van Limburg, 30/07/96.

Perrier (b)

"Bubbels".
Lezersbrieven in De Morgen, 29/07/01

Perrier (c)

"Perrier".
Lezersbrieven in Weekend Knack. 25/09/96

Zelfbeeld

"Vrouwen in reclame. Voor een gezond zelfbeeld"
Sophia Nieuwsbrief, nr. 28, 2001

Vrouwbeelden in de media.

Een gesprek met Corine Van Hellemont over vrouwonvriendelijke reclame en de prille mentaliteitsverandering bij enkele reclamemakers.

Mannenbladen - Seks,
sport en auto’s.

Door Koen van de Meulen

 

De constructie van mannelijkheid in de engelstalige Esquire

door Ingrid Hoofd. Studentenpaper, Utrecht, 6 maart 1997

Religieuze symbolen in de reclame: een rage of een postmoderne trend?

Door: Michel Walrave

Geen Prijs voor Antwerpse Modeafdeling

Minister Vogels ziet af van Prijstoekenning voor doorbreken van "ideale maten"

Beeldvorming van mannen en vrouwen 

Wie denkt, of misschien stilletjes hoopt, dat er in de afgelopen vijfentwintig jaar veel veranderd is, komt bedrogen uit.

De Morgen, Heet van de tong

"In het hoerenraam van de reclame zitten nog altijd vooral vrouwen"
 interview met Corine Van Hellemont naar aanleiding van de Zorra-Publieksrpijs 2001

Ideale maten moeten wijken voor diversiteit

Deze week lanceert Mieke Vogels, minister van Gezondheid en Welzijn, een nieuwe campagne tegen het schoonheidsideaal. De actie wil het schoonheidsideaal relativeren (mei 2002)

Verkiezingen 13 juni 2004
De campagne op televisie 

Vrouwen kregen minder lang het woord dan mannen in de televisie-programma's in de aanloop van de verkiezingen van 13 juni 2004 in België

Kinderen en Reclame

Kinderen begrijpen onvoldoende hoe reclame werkt en staan onvoldoende kritisch ten aanzien van de boodschappen die via de verschillende media verspreid
worden. 

Septembernummer 2002 - Gezinsbond

De invloed van tv-geweld op kinderen

Worden kinderen echt agressief wanneer ze kijken naar series waarin veel geweld voorkomt? Neemt de agressie toe of juist niet, of maakt het niet uit. Vertonen kinderen crimineel gedrag? 

Mariska Broer, eindscriptie MDGO AW, 1995

Op www.destandaard.be

'Gamma-reclame in P-Magazine is vrouwvernederend'

 Nieuws/Economie : 20/7/2001 

Radio 1-spotje meest vrouwvriendelijk

Nieuws/Media : 13/11/2002 

Reclame moet dun én dik tonen

Nieuws/Binnenland : 19/7/2002 

Seksistische journalistiek


Nieuws/Media : 29/1/2002

Media en reclame werken vaak rolbevestigend
Man is expert, vrouw getuigt.

Van onze redactrice Nadia Dala. 08/03/2000... 

VRAAG VAN DE WEEK. Lijden we onder maatje 38?

Kirsten Aerts, Eef Leroy, Martin Tytgat,  Isa Van Dorsselaer Standpunt/Opinie : 16/2/2002

Waarom vrouwen
complimenten maken.
Renée Van Mechelen over de tweede feministische golf. 

De Standaard, 26 september 1996. 

Zorra begint een ludieke strijd tegen vrouwonvriendelijke reclame. 

De Standaard, 1 oktober 1996. 

franstalige artikels

Appel aux armes contre la publicité sexiste.

 Nathalie Collard. La Presse. Le 4 décembre 1999.

La représentation du Noir dans quels produits publicitaires ?

 Le quai des images.

D'hier à aujourd'hui :
la publicité et la femme.

Maryline Larocque-Geneau, Marie-Josée Bélanger Chantal, Jean-Bouchard,  Lyna Wright 

Enfin libres de choisir nos chaînes...

Par Valérie Brunetière. Le Monde Diplomatique, mai 2001, page 32

Ethique en publicité.

Conseil pontifical pour les communications sociales

Femmes dans la Publicité Française.

Par Larae Bush.

Femmes artistes et images de femme. 

Par Florence Bougeret.

Florilège de saloperies sexistes.

La Femme, stéréotypes. L'Homme, quelques stéréotypes également.
 Par: Lullie Ettighoffer.

La France veut limiter
les publicités "dévalorisant" la femme
.

 Le gouvernement français tente de limiter les publicités "dévalorisant" l’image de la femme, dont celles dites "porno-chic", renvoyant à des fantasmes pornographiques, sado-masochistes, voire zoophiles, particulièrement critiquées par les féministes. Agence France-Presse. Le jeudi 18 octobre 2001

L'image de la femme dans la publicité choque surtout... les femmes.

Quatre Français sur dix se déclarent aujourd'hui heurtés par la manière dont on présente les femmes dans la publicité. Selon l'enquête Ipsos-Culture Mag, les femmes et les plus de 35 ans sont les plus choqués, mais la majorité des hommes comme des plus jeunes n'y voit rien à redire. (Sondage effectué pour : Culture Mag
Date du terrain : Les 27 et 28 avril 2001)

Halte aux publicités sexistes!

Un rapport qui s'attaque (enfin) aux publicités sexistes !

Les enjeux liés à la représentation des femmes dans la publicité.

Le 8 mars 2000.

L’image de la femme dans la publicité

 [Power Point Presentation]
 L’image de la femme montrée par la publicité est devenue dégradante par rapport aux premières publicités. 

Image et place de la femme dans la société.

Les élèves de la classe de première ES1 du lycée Koeberlé de Sélestat dans le Bas-Rhin ont choisi de travailler sur ce thème cette année

Le mépris des hommes

(première partie – la publicité).
Par Gilles Guénette.

L’opinion sur l’utilisation
du corps de la femme
dans la publicité Selon le sexe en 2002.

Enquête réalisée les 25 et 26 septembre 2002 pour Stratégies auprès d'un échantillon national de 1.000 personnes.

Parfum de scandale
autour de deux publicités
.

Yves Saint Laurent, pour marquer l'esprit, et Dior, afin de cibler une nouvelle clientèle, sortent chacun deux versions publicitaires de leur nouveau parfum, l'une policée, l'autre provocatrice. Le choix de leur diffusion est laissé au medias. Par Véronique Lorelle. Le Monde, 19/10/02.

Propagande, publicité, information
 et désinformation.

Conférence au Centre culturel français de Helsinki 25.4.2002 Par Serge Tisseron.

La pseudo-égalité des femmes dans la publicité.

Par Marie-France Cyr. Spécialiste en analyse publicitaire. 

Reflets troublants de l'image
de la femme de l'an 2000
[PDF] 

Bref, on entretient le stéréotype de la femme fragile et infantile

.Publicité : out la ménagère !

 Il est révolu le temps où les marques de lessive s’adressaient exclusivement à la ménagère-fée-du-logis. Souvenez-vous, les publicités se ressemblaient toutes : une tache monstrueuse maculait le t-shirt d’un gamin cracra. Deux produits s’affrontaient donc pour anéantir la saleté sévèrement incrustée et la lessive de la marque mise en avant remportait haut la main le challenge. Par Marie Foucart.

Les Sciences Potiches se Rebellent Contre les pubs sexistes ...

 La publicité véhicule des clichés sexistes qui enferme les femmes dans des rôles prédéfinis par les hommes. La publicité participe de cette oppression sociale qui érige des normes insupportables et nourrit des stéréotypes stupides.

Le corps, un objet qui donne envie d’acheter.

 La publicité montre de plus en plus le corps masculin nu, viril, poilu et celui de la femme... en route pour l’orgasme. Effet choc garanti, ce genre d’images cherche à marquer le regard des consommateurs et à se démarquer de la concurrence. Tout simplement. Par: Claire-Lise Genoud, le 12 novembre 2002

Zorra, les chiennes
de garde de la pub
.

Zorra est une association qui fait parler d'elle. En témoigne notamment le nombre de plaintes qu'elle a déposées auprès du JEP contre "l'usage superflu de la minceur en publicité": une bonne centaine! Une façon de démontrer que les arts visuels exploitent encore trop souvent la femme comme objet de désir, et que la question de l'égalité des sexes en publicité n'est toujours pas résolue. Analyse : Bart Lombaerts, Média Marketing, n°181, septembre octobre   2002

Droits des jeunes filles et des jeunes femmes en Europe. Questions et Défis pour le 20ième siècle.

Margaret Gallagher. Bratislava (Slovaquie),19-21 Octobre 2000. Article écrit en vue du Forum d'Information au Conseil de l'Europe 2000 sur les Politiques nationales dans le domaine de l'Egalité entre les Hommes et les Femmes.

engelstalige artikels

10 Things Men Can Do to End Sexism and Male Violence Against Women

This treatise was drafted by a collegiate group called Harvard Anti-Sexist Men to draw attention to 
attitude and lifestyle changes that collectively will help to end sexism and violence against women.

Advertising and the Voice of Authority - Men Have it, Women Don't

 Men tend to be valued by what they think; women tend to be valued by what they look like. Men are continually being given the voice of authority in society and in the media, especially in advertisements. Rebecca Zarchikoff

Advertising Cookbooks

from the Emergence of Advertising in America 1850-1920 exhibit of the John W. Hartman Center, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University.

An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: implications for gender socialization and aggressive behavior.

Using content analysis, this research examines the portrayal of women and the use of violent themes in a sample of 33 popular Nintendo and Sega Genesis... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, March 01 1998 by Tracy L. Dietz

Barbie "What will she look like?"

Scholar paper by: Sandra Pereira Rolle. Submitted for the class "Body/Politics" of Kathy Davis, Utrecht 1999

Are contemporary men's magazines a progressive force in society?

By Joseph Sharples

Are magazines for young men likely to reinforce stereotypical, 'macho' and sexist attitudes in their readers?

By Lucy Brown

Aunt Jemima Isn't Keeping Up with the Energizer Bunny: Stereotyping of Animated Spokes-characters in Advertising.(Statistical Data Included)

This study sought to examine one aspect of stereotyping in television advertising, specifically, the use of animated spokes-characters as product representatives... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, June 01 1999 by Michael Mcbride 

Beauty and Hygiene advertisements

from the 1920s through 1950s section of the Ad*Access Project database of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University.

Can Gramsci's theory of hegemony help us to understand the representation of ethnic minorities in western television and cinema?

By Reena Mistry

Commercial Closet Association. 

Mainstream Advertising Best Practices.

This document is a tool to assist marketers and ad agencies to create effective, inclusive mainstream and business advertising that is respectful of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) people, while promoting creativity, sales and image goals.

Top Selling Video Games "Unhealthy" For Girls.

A survey of video games marketed to kids offers conclusions about violence, body image, and more.

Do Women Approve of Benevolent Sexism?

Offers a perspective of sexism in which both hostile and benevolent beliefs about women tend to coexist. Explore women's reactions.

Eating behaviours and attitudes following prolonged exposure to television among ethnic Fijian adolescent girls

The] Evolution of Desire in Advertising: From Object-Obsession to Subject-Affection.

Todd Joseph Miles Holden

From 'Hearth and Home' to a Queer Chic. A Critical Analysis of Progressive Depictions of Gender in Advertising.

By Reena Mistry

Eating Disorders and the Media.

 A study showed that the building of the distorted body image that leads to eating disorders occurs in stages. In stage 1, young women absorb the ideal image that is shown to them over and over. In stage 2, women fantasize themselves as thin, beautiful versions of their present selves. In stage 3, they become depressed when they realize what their present body looks like compared to this ideal, unrealistic, image and many resort to an eating disorder. This has everything to do with the ads that surround us.

Gender advertisements in magazines aimed at African Americans: a comparison to their occurrence in magazines aimed at Caucasians.

Advertisements from magazines aimed at African Americans were compared to ads from magazines aimed predominantly at Whites. Over 200 magazine advertisements... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, January 01 1999 by Nicole Goulet

Gender differences in emotional language in children's picture books.

Author/s: Clary A. Tepper
From Sex Roles. Issue: Feb, 1999.

Gender Stereotypes
and Children's Literature 

Toshiko Sugino onderzoekt o.m. genderstereotypen in Japanese kinderboeken.

Gender role stereotyping in advertisements on two British radio stations.

The portrayal of men and women in two different samples of British radio advertisements was examined. It updated an earlier British study (Furnham & Schofield,... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, January 01 1999 by Louise Thomson 

Gender stereotypes in Portuguese television advertisements.

This study examined the portrayal of men and women in a sample of Portuguese television commercials, attempting to replicate and extend past investigations... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, July 01 1998 by Isabel Pinto

Images and Words
In Women's Sports.

Guidelines for Female Athletes and the Media, Public Relations, Advertising and Marketing Communities

In the Movies, Women Age Faster.

By Natalie Angier. New York Times, December 9, 2001

Influences of Social Expectations of Gender, Gender Stereotypes, and Situational Constraints on Children's Toy Choices.

(Statistical Data Included)

From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, December 01 1999 by Tarja Raag

Judgments About Sexism

Compares three studies of middle class Caucasians in which their individual perceptions, values and beliefs are the bases of defining sexism

Lack of News Coverage for Women’s Athletics: A Questionable Practice of Newspaper Priorities. The media helps shape our perceptions and beliefs.

 If women's and girls' sports are ignored or trivialized, what sort of message is that sending? Judith Jenkins George examines the impact of "under-reporting" women's and girls' sports. By: Judith Jenkins George.

Madison Avenue versus The Feminine Mystique: How the Advertising Industry Responded to the Onset of the Modern Women’s Movement

 In her now-classic 1963 book, The Feminine Mystique, feminist author and activist Betty Friedan charged the advertising industry with perpetuating and exploiting the oppression of women through the use of negative stereotypes.

Madonna and Gender Trouble.

By Reena Mistry

Racism and Sexism in Advertising.

 By Shafeeq Sadiq

Mainstream Advertising Best Practices.

This document is a tool to assist marketers and ad agencies to create effective, inclusive mainstream and business advertising that is respectful of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) people, while promoting creativity, sales and image goals.

Marketing masculinity: gender identity and popular magazines.

This study examines role portrayals of males in popular magazines. 7,935 individuals in illustrations were coded for race, sex, and role. Findings in ordinary... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, July 01 1998 by Timothy J. Curry

Meaning and Significance of Stereotypes in Popular Culture

Gregory A. Thumm wrote this basic introduction to stereotypes for his class on popular culture at the Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, West Virginia.

Mirror, mirror. A summary of research findings on body image.

Social Issues Research Center

Racism and Sexism

"Racism and Sexism - A Collective Struggle," by Valerie Russell presents an argument for human liberation which benefits all oppressed groups.

[The] role of body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and breast size in judgments of female attractiveness.

Author/s: Adrian Furnham. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. August, 1998

Role models for men [ interview].

 Peter Baker from the men's health magazine ZM interviewed David Gauntlett about role models for men in December 1999

Sexism and Stereotypes
 in Modern Society

In-depth review of a book that covers three decades of research on gender completed by Janet 
Taylor Spence.

Selling Masculinities, Selling Femininities: 
Multiple Genders And
The Economics of Television

Twenty years ago, two members of the New York chapter of the National Organization for Women (NOW) reported in The New York Times Magazine the results of a study of portrayals of women in over 1,200 television commercials (Hennessee & Nicholson, 1972, May 28). Their findings were that women were overwhelmingly shown in negative stereotypical roles with a substantial proportion of the ads depicting women either as household functionaries or as sex objects.

Sex-Role Stereotyping in Television Commercials:
A Review and Comparison of Fourteen Studies Done on Five Continents Over 25 Years.

(Statistical Data)...

Issues discussed concern a cross-cultural comparison of gender role stereotyping in television commercials. Topics addressed include gender equity and... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, September 01 1999 by Twiggy Mak 

Sexism in Advertising.

Advertising: System of Sexist Oppression by Trisha Grover/Duluth YSA 

Sexism in the Transsexual

Anne Vitale examines the disturbing tendencies towards sexism in some men with gender dysphoria.

Sexism in the Fourth Grade

Kevin Karkau discusses his observations of gender segregation in a fourth grade classroom and his attempts to challenge the status quo.

Should gay people seek to cultivate representations of a unified gay identity in the media, or is this counterproductive?

By Ross Horsley

Still Marginal: Women in Israel's 1996 Television Election Campaign [1].

(Statistical Data Included)

An analysis of the political aspects of media representation of women is presented, focusing on gender equality issues and the media in the 1988 and 1996... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, September 01 1999 by Chava E. Tidhar

Study: Video games contain "unhealthy" messages for girls.

December 15, 2000 - A recent study on video games concludes that the most popular video games contain "unhealthy" messages for girls, including unrealistic body images, provocative sexuality and violent behaviour

Smurfs - Smurfy Sexism

Created with a Biased Hand. By Mariruth Graham. Examines the role that Smurfette had in portraying a negative female image.

Stereotypical Toys. 

 How can toys cause sexism? by Jessica Cross

The Portrayal of Men's Family Roles in Television Commercials [1]

(Statistical Data Included)

Issues discussed concern the portrayal of men and their family roles in US television commercials. Topics addressed include the influence of advertising... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, September 01 1999 by Gayle Kaufman 

Uses of sex appeals in prime-time television commercials.

This study examines how sex appeals employed by male and female models were utilized in American television commercials. It centers on the physical characteristics... From Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, March 01 1998 by Carolyn A. Lin

Ads We Could Probably Do Without

(Compiled by Richard F. Taflinger)

These are ads from a variety of places, found by my students or myself. I've included a little commentary with each.

Women in Refrigirators

This is a list I made when it occurred to me that it's not that healthy to be a female character in comics. I'm curious to find out if this list seems somewhat disproportionate, and if so, what it means, really.

Woman and Man in Advertising:

Narrative Illustration of an 'Equality which Cannot Be Found'.

The socially constructed and organized unequality between men and women is one of the major injustices of our times. This article deals with the ways "gender" is reprensented in paraliterary genres, more especially in the advertisements of the late 1980s.

IS GENDER STEREOTYPING IN ADVERTISING MORE PREVALENT IN
MASCULINE COUNTRIES? 

A cross-national analysis

How to read advertisements?

Katherine Frith (1998) discusses a tripartite approach to reading advertising. The examples below follow her understandings of ads in "Undressing the Ad: Reading Culture in Advertising.

A Content Analysis of Gender Differences in Children's Advertising

Lois J Smith [1994]:

A substantial amount of research has been conducted regarding the ways in which children acquire so-called gender appropriate behaviours, and this journal article is particularly relevant to my own research in that it considers the possible influences of television advertising upon a child's perception and subsequent re-enactment of gender role-play.

Importance of gender in perception of advertising spokes-character effectiveness

by Kate Peirce, Michael McBride and Tim England

A recent study confirmed that spokes-characters, the cute little animated creatures in television advertising, are mostly male. In fact, only nine of 39 recalled by test participants and 10 of 32 viewed in videotapes of commercials were anything but male. To advertisers this finding might seem trivial. What does it matter if a bunny banging a drum is male or female? Or perhaps the advertisers believe that only a male bunny can sell batteries.

Depicting Women as Sex Objects in Television Advertising: Effects on Body Dissatisfaction

Desiree Tygart


 Television advertisements are highly suggestible, persuasive elements of everyday life that do help form and strengthen gender stereotypes. Analysis of television advertisements has shown that many ads contain gender-stereotypic ideas and pictures. 

Cross-cultural Analysis of Advertising from the United States and India

by Niaz Ahmed (1996)

The study examined the characteristics, differences and similarities in advertising strategies and expressions.

 

“Male” and “Female” Ads: Gender Expression in the Language of Recent Polish and Russian Advertising

This paper will expand on gender-linguistic studies of Polish and Russian to explore whether such formal characteristics as grammatical gender and agreement phenomena, genderlect and male/female lexicon in the language of advertising shape perceptions of real-world gender and contribute to the creation of “male” and “female” advertisements.

Effects of Metaphors on Children's Comprehension and Perception of Print Advertising

Power Point Presentation

Donna R. Pawlowski, Diane M. Badzinski, and Nancy Mitchell

By Soo-Jeong Kim

full article

Female Gender Images in Adolescent Magazine Advertising

Julie Napoli, Marie Murgolo-Poore & Ian Boudville

This study examines the
female images shown by advertisers in the Australian editions of Barbie, Girlfriend and Dolly magazines. Findings
indicate there is limited diversity in physical attributes as well as ethnicity of the models portrayed in these publications.
Limitations are noted and future research issues are discussed.

THE IMPACT OF GENDER ON AD PROCESSING:
A SOCIAL IDENTITY PERSPECTIVE

Advertising is often seen as an efficient but sometimes ineffective external influence on buyer behavior. Marketers are therefore seeking ways to make advertising more effective. This paper provides a theoretical framework explaining how ads can influence attitude and purchase intentions by activating an identity with one’s gender group. 

DOING GENDER IN CONGRESSIONAL CAMPAIGN ADVERTISEMENTS

Virginia Sapiro and Katherine Cramer Walsh

On the first page of the novel Primary Colors, Joe Klein (“Anonymous”) describes the
politician’s memorable handshake, so important in the politician’s self-presentation that the narrator
calls it “the threshold act, the beginning of politics.”

Advertising's effects on men's gender role attitudes 

In the average American household, the television is turned "on" for almost seven hours each day, and the typical adult or child watches two to three hours of television per day. It is estimated that the average child sees 360,000 advertisements by the age of eighteen (Harris, 1989).

The Effect of Television Day Part on Gender Portrayals

Gender portrayals in 2,209 network television commercials were content
analyzed. To compare differences between three day parts, the sample was chosen from three time periods: daytime, when the audience is mostly women;
evening prime time, when the sex of the audience is more evenly distributed; and weekend afternoon sportscasts, when men are a large percentage of the
audience. 

Gender Advertisements Revisited: 
A Visual Sociology Classic

Greg Smith

The fate of Goffman's Gender Advertisements in the sociological literature is reviewed nearly two decades after its original publication. The paper underlines Goffman's consistent social constructionist approach to gender differentiation, an approach which still contains much of relevance to a range of feminisms. 

Acceptable Levels of Nudity: How the Perception of Body Covering Effects Acceptability of Nudity

Ronald L. Kinsey

Examined the effect of paint on nude female models with regard to the perception of nudity. Using 30 subjects 16 female and 14 male ranging in age from 18-65 the study measured the subjects perception of pictures of nude women. (...) Female subjects gave lower scores of acceptability overall then male subjects.

Advertising Images of Girls and Women

1997

Advertising is designed to sell products. In the process, ads also sell aspirations and communicate concepts of acceptable behavior and gender roles. Just as today¹s kids use ads to navigate the vast sea of our consumer culture ‹ and in the process largely determine how billions of dollars are spent annually ‹ so do they readily consume the subtle messages sent by the thousands of ads they see each year. 

Gender and Political Advertising across Cultures

A Comparison of Male and Female Political Advertising in Finland
and the US

Tom Carlson

This article addresses the question whether the relationship between
gender and televised political advertising, observed in the US, holds true
regardless of context, or if it is conditioned by its setting.

Gender roles portrayed in Kenyan television commercials

Over the years, several studies have focussed on the gender images and messages relayed by various forms of mass media and in particular, television (e.g., Bretl & Cantor, 1988; Signorielli, 1985). The heightened concern becomes pertinent as television assumes an increasingly dominant role in the socialization process of people living in developed countries.

If My Commercial Makes Fun of My Political Opponent, Do My Race and My Gender Make a Difference?

An experiment tested the effects of the race and gender of the sponsor of a humorous negative political commercial on perceptions of the sponsoring candidate, the commercial itself, and a white male political opponent.

Images of Female Children in TV Commercials

This study compares the portrayals of female children with those of male children in television commercials. The roles of females in society are no longer limited to housewives and nurses, females today have the option to pursue any career they wish. It is important to see if the changing roles of females are represented in commercials viewed by children. Examining the roles of female children in commercials shows in what ways females are still inferior to men.

The Effect of Media Analysis on Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Body Image Among College Students

Rabak-Wagener, Judith; Eickhoff-Shemek, JoAnn; Kelly-Vance, Lisa

Particular strategies of media advocacy can help people contest the dominant body images of fashion advertisements and reframe them to include a broader array of "normal" images.

Getting in the Picture: A Parent's and Carer's Guide for the Better Use of Television for Children

References

Gender issues in Political Communication. 

Selected Bibliography.

Images of Men and Masculinity in the Mass Media:
A Selected Research Bibliography

compiled by Steve Craig

The Power of Humorous Context to Affect Perception of
Commercials, Programs, and Products

Few topics in advertising have received as much attention, discussion, and
debate as the impact of humor. Research has demonstrated a positive link between humor and attention to commercials and a
negative link between humor and recall of commercials as well as gender differences. 

OFFENSIVE ADVERTISING ON THE WEB: ASIAN INSIGHTS

This study, conducted in Hong Kong, furthers Prendergast et al’s (2002) study by including the web as a medium, and aims to identify what types of web advertising consumers find offensive, consumers’ tolerance of
offensive (web) advertisements on the web relative to offensive advertisements in other media, and the effects of offensive web advertisements on consumers’ purchase intention.

“It’s a Man’s World”?
Male and Female Election Campaigning on the Internet

(...) in the news coverage – the free media – female candidates tend to be treated disadvantageously.
Studies have shown that the women candidates receive less coverage than their male counterparts and that disfavoring sex role stereotypes are mirrored in the media
presentations of the female candidates.

Even in Modern Media, the Picture is Still the Same: A Content Analysis of Clipart Images

This study examined images of human beings in two popular computer clipart packages, Microsoft Office 97 and Print Shop Ensemble III, to investigate whether this new medium would embody modern, egalitarian goals for gender and racial equality or would depict more traditional and differentiated views.

Third-Person Effect, Gender and Pornography on the Internet

This study examines the relationship among gender, third-person effect and support
for restriction of pornography on the Internet. The results of this study indicate that
female respondents tend to perceive greater negative effects of Internet pornography
on other males than on other females.

GENDER RESPONSE TO SEXUAL APPEALS IN ADS FEATURING MALE MODELS

This study investigates how gender (male/female) and level of male nudity (low, medium, and high) in print advertisements influence viewers' attitude towards the ad, attitude towards the brand, purchase intentions and tension, pleasure,
and arousal levels. 

Gender Equality in Film and Media

Film and media (print, broadcast and electronic) powerfully shape and reflect society’s
perception of women’s and men’s roles in economic, social and cultural life. There are a number of gender issues in the film and media sector and these are discussed below under the headings of representation and participation in film and media activities. 

Gender and Violence in the Mass Media 

Report Prepared for the Family Violence Prevention Division 
Health Canada 
1993 

Girls and Media

The facts

Is Negative Advertising Effective for Female Candidates? 

An Experiment in Voters' Uses of Gender Stereotypes 

Woman and Man in Advertising: Narrative Illustration of an 'Equality which Cannot Be Found'

The socially constructed and organized unequality between men and women is one of the major injustices of our times. This article deals with the ways "gender" is reprensented in paraliterary genres, more especially in the advertisements of the late 1980s."

Children’s Understanding of TV Advertising: Effects of Age, Gender and Parental Influence

We investigate children’s understanding of TV advertising, that is their ability to distinguish
between TV programs and commercials and their comprehension of advertising intent, using
verbal and non-verbal measurements.

Advertising to Women

Women may account for as much as 80% of all consumer purchases – even in China – and are the target group for the majority of all advertising. So it is legitimate to ask why it should be necessary to treat them as special in some way.

A Content Analysis 
of Clipart Images
 

This study examined images of human beings in two popular computer clipart packages, Microsoft Office 97 and Print Shop Ensemble III, to investigate whether this new medium would embody modern, egalitarian goals for gender and racial equality or would depict more traditional and differentiated views.

Gender Targeting in Print Ads

“There really are fundamental differences in the way men and women process information…Women tend to process more extensively more different pieces of information…Men tend to rely on more mental shortcuts…” (Yarborough nd). This quote seems to be the most adequate way of starting this essay.

Craig, R. Stephen (1992): 

‘The Effect of Television Day Part on Gender Portrayals in Television Commercials: A Content Analysis’, Sex Roles 26(5/6): 197-211 

A Review

The main intention of this study was to consider whether and how gender portrayals in advertisements aimed at men differ from those aimed at women, by using specific day parts (daytime, evening primetime and weekend afternoon sports) as a framework for the supposed target audience (women, family and men respectively). 

What Do Men and Women Want in Advertising?

By: Selena McIntyre

We all know that men and women were created equal in the beginning. However, when it comes to buying habits, are men and women really from two different planets? This article will show you what type of ads appeal to men and women.

TV VIEWER PARTICIPATION IN BELGIUM

In Belgium, broadcasting policy is a defederalized competence administered by the different Communities
(regional levels) in the country. Therefore, both the Flemish, the French and the German Community have
established official bodies to control the media and receive viewer complaints. Besides this, specific interest
groups have been set up separately in every linguistic area, and a number of national organisations increase viewer
participation across the country.

 

 

 

ZORRA Gender Media Watch
Meldpunt & Discussieplatform

bijgewerkt op: 07 augustus 2008